Golgi-Disturbing Agents Lead to the Elimination of Intracellular Toxoplasma gondii

C. S. Carvalho, G. R. Figueiredo, E. J. T. de Melo*
Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, CEP 28015-620, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

© 2008 J. T. de Melo et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, CEP 28015-620, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fax: +55 (22) 27261500; E-mail:


The Golgi apparatus is responsible for the genesis of secretory organelles of Toxoplasma gondii and lipid traffic to the vacuole. This study used anti-Golgi agents to demonstrate the importance of Golgi in Toxoplasma development. Monensin, Brefeldin A, Retinoic Acid and Okadaic Acid reduced the infection, leading to parasite elimination. Mon, BFA and RA affected secretory organelles and the Golgi Complex of the parasites, with faster parasite elimination in the presence of Monensin; in addition, the vesicular transit of host cell C6-NBD-ceramide metabolites was interrupted, but the GC of host cells was preserved. Our results suggest that several targets in the secretory pathway are affected in the intracellular Toxoplasma rather than in the host cells, resulting in interruption of parasite development and its elimination from the intracellular medium.

Keywords: Anti-Golgi agents, lipid traffic, Toxoplasma gondii.