Genetic Diversity of Two Tilapia Species (Oreochromis Niloticus and Sarthrodon Galilaeus) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

Omeima M. Omer1, *, Abd El Wahab H. Abdalla2, Zuheir N. Mahmoud3
1 Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

© 2020 Omer et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum, Sudan; Tel: +249-912693996; E-mail:;



In this study, the genetic variability in eight populations of Oreochromis niloticus and seven populations of Sarotherodon galilaeus was estimated using molecular markers.

Materials and Methods:

Fish specimens were collected from eight sites representing the White Nile, Blue Nile and the River Nile. Tissue samples from gills and dorsal fin were removed from individual specimens and preserved separately in absolute ethanol prior to molecular analysis by RAPD-PCR using eight primers. DNA analysis using OPA-04, OPA-13, OPA-03, OPA-06, OPA-07, OPA-09, OPA-10 and RAPD-8 produced different bands for each.

Results and Discussion:

The total bands generated by the primers were: 17, 16, 18, 12, 12, 14, 14, and 17. They were in the range of 100 to 1020 bp. Levels of variability were estimated by the proportion of polymorphic bands obtained by each primer within a population. The range of variability was wider in O. niloticus (46.0 to 91.7) compared to S. galilaeus (56.2 to 83.3). The dendrogram obtained differentiated the populations into 22 sub-clusters. Oreochromis niloticus from Al Kalakla exhibited a high level of genetic diversity. This diversity is evident among and within the studied populations, as estimated by RAPD-PCR techniques.


To promote tilapia production, the study recommended increasing genetic variation within broodstocks by crossing high similarity breeds with low similarity ones.

Keywords: Populations, Diversity, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, RAPD, Dendrogram.